Pharmacology Guide Excerpts

 

Pharmacokinetic Processes

Determine the amount of dose that reaches site of action

 

Absorption

Movement of drug into the bloodstream

RATE determines how rapidly drug effects begin

AMOUNT determines intensity of effect

IV - instant, complete

IM, SC - rapid, capillary wall barrier

Oral - variable, GI epithelial cells, capillary wall barriers

 

Plasma Drug Levels

Minimum Effective Concentration (MEC) is the level below which therapeutic effects will not occur

Toxic Concentration (TC) is the level where toxic effects begin to appear

Therapeutic Range is the level between the MEC and TC

 

 

Distribution

Movement of drug into cells

 

Metabolism

Enzymatic action on the drug, primarily hepatic

 

Excretion

Primarily through urine but also bile, sweat, saliva, breast milk, exhalation

 

Half Life

Time required for drug concentration to decrease by 50 per cent.

 

 

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Antianginals

Name

Administration

Action

Pharmacokinetics

Side Effects

G- Diltiazem

T- Cardiazem

R- Oral, IV

D- 180-360 mg tid

10/ml /hr IV

Calcium channel blocker, reduces cardiac work

A-30 - 60 min

H-3.5 - 6 hours

Dizziness, headache, fatigue, nausea, edema, flushing, NP

G- Nifedipine

T- Procardia, Adalat

R- Oral, SR

D- 10 - 20 mg tid

Calcium channel blocker

A-20 mins

H-2 - 5 hrs

Sleep disturbances, edema, angina, pruritis, NP

G- Nitroglycerin

T- Nitroglycerin

R- SL, IV, Topical

D- SL - 1 tab prn

Nitrate

A-1 - 3 mins

H- 47 - 100 hrs

Headache, apprehension, vertigo, hypotension, rash

G- Verapamil

T- Isoptin, Calan

R- Oral, IV

D-320-480 mg / d

- 5-10 mg IV

Calcium channel blocker

A-30 min

H-3 - 7 hrs

Dizziness, nausea, edema, hypotension, arrhythmias, NP

 

 

GENITOURINARY SYSTEM

Diuretics

Name

Administration

Action

Pharmacokinetics

Side Effects

G - Chlorothiazide

T - Diuril

R - PO, IV

D - 0.5 - 2 g bid or qid

Sodium and chloride inhibitor

A- 15 - 120 min

H- 45 - 120 min

Vomiting, polyuria, impotence, photosensitivity, hives, gouty attacks. NP

G - Furosemide

T - Lasix

R - PO, IM, IV

D - 50 - 100 mg q 4 - 6 hrs

Loop high action

A- 5 - 60 mins

H- 120 mins

Paresthesias xanthopsia, NP, vomiting, thrombophlebitis, leukopenia, electrolyte loss.

 

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